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■ 36 





^^ 1653 Easi Moin StrMi 

=VS "c hesttr. Ne» York 14609 USA 

'■^= (7 In) 482 - 0300 - Phone 

^= (716) 288 - 5989 - Fax 


y/innipeg to the Prairies 
Rockies and Pacific [past 

Irf -^^ '-^ M 


\Vinni|Mi^ to \\\v. IVairios 
l^ockics an<l l>a<:iNc ('.oast 



^ic.\i rt^THoi? ^\ii (;Sr4rf^. 

Canadian^l^ionBt Railuiaij 


Canadian Northern Railway Systirn 
Canadian Government Railways 

The Great Northwestern Telegraph Companv 

1 4,000 Miles of Railway 

56,000 Miles of Telegraph Lines 

Traversing every Province in Canada's 

Dominion and directly serving the great 

sea ports of 




Passenger Freight Express Telegraph 


For time tcbles and information iriquire nearest 
Canadian National Railways agent 

Head Offices 

Toronto, Ont. 





MU from 


(» (» Winnip-rt All 771 7 F^puli tmn 2()().0()(l I (,p Mir.ut-irK nn 

portani •■ <jf 'iX'innijHv a" a IraHitiK centre 
wan detcrmiP^.l when the Hurlron May Company those the point 
at ihi conllucnce of the Ked Kiver and the AHHiniboine lo cittnfihith 
I ort Ciarry, which ()eiame their thiet (xHtt Witli tie advent of 
the railway^), as Irafhc (roin the won! for the east, and the east for 
the west, must through \X'innipc({ it is now one ol (he most 
important railway leni on lli^ tontinent Capital of the Pro 
vince of Manitoba and the principal city of Western Canada, and 
with the (x>ssil)lc exception o( I.ivcrp<Kil. it is the iffc'test grain 
iri'irket in the Oritish l.nipiie. lorty-hve year.«i ago it h,id a popii 
lalion of k'.ss than a hundred fxiople; toclav it is a splendidly huilt 
city Willi .sevenly-dve miles ol electric railway, fifty miles of sjli 
iirhan track, and commands the tracfe of a vast r»'i{ion. rich in 
agriculture and mineral resources It has hcautiful buildinK.t. 
palatial etores. line churches, splendid residences, finely kept streets 
.ind parks, great Hour m ' i. grain elevators, huge abattoirs. In 
ever\' respect a modern cit\. one where the spirit of l>usiness !•> 
most active, it is a city where mighty results are attained. The 

r to 

f i 

n * 

^nadiar Ntiti'inai KaiiwdVH Depfit. Winni^>tx. Man. 



NOTI.S ii V I Hi. \\ \^ 

\ii. 1,,, 

C unttdiuii K.iilw.iN-n .M.ilum im crci It-il on idr site 
of old I or I (.arry. I| m an irii|io»inu »;riiilurr in k('i-|iinw 
Willi llip importantr o< t,,r mriKip.ilm. m wliii li llic < .t.ind 
Irunlc f'rttilK , <,re..l Nortluni ..n-l N)rlliriti I'.k ilii K.tilwav- 
.irr irn.intii llir ofliic^ of ihr ( Krtil 
wuyi. wcHliTn linrs .ire Nilii.itt.l Ik-k- Uy a tcrtvx i>t induxtrial i.pur 
trucks the la|m llif wholrsaU- diNliiilx I roni a line 
prtialli liiiK 'he river. HidiiiKN i-\lc'ii<l i;i loriD' laM-H lo Main .Str«-«-l 
pullinfc' ihr C'an.idmn Nalmnal in a (Misilion lo inakf t r.ii k delivri 
ii's lo I hi- Ur«c wliiileHuIr Iioiini-n aiici iiianiilai liiiini; lolxcriiN 


Se. rharlfN Alt 


n . 


787 2 

20 y 

Uhiri- IMiiliiH 

789 1 

2S 4 


791 5 

M) 9 


792 () 

45 i 


797 7 

iH 4 

Willow Kant>i> 

802 6 

42 2 


816 2 

45 5 

Now ton 

826 4 

4H () 


8*7 6 

55 ') 

l'orla»i«'la IValrio " 

8)6 6 

6() 7 


845 n 

66 1 


845 M 

70 5 


858 5 

74 H 


866 2 

79 i 


886 9 

84 4 


'»14 7 

87 4 

(iold<'ii Sjri'am 

887 6 

92 6 


887 8 

IlK) 4 


917 i 

106 S 



115 } 


959 2 

119 8 


959 6 

128 1 



and then in a t{,neral westerly 
River valley to l-dmonton 




148 6 




164 2 

Ochre RiytT 



177 8 


189 4 


197 8 

(Wllurt Fhiins 

207 4 


214 9 


220 < 

St revel 

223 2 


















Leaving M iniii|H-K. tlio iine Ira 
verses wifle reathen of level land, 
inut'h of whuh hat been under 
drained and i» now anion|{!>t the 
inoit prodiiitive in the province 
I he first town of ini|><irlanie 
reached is Porlawe I .a f'rairie 
■forlaue ■ with a |Mipiilalion <jf 
approximately 5.900 ,,, an irn[Mjr 
lant inilliriK and inantifaetiirinK 
centre j'he I'ortaxe flainn are 

comparatively old .-.Jtllenients. 
Were, on either side of the rail 
way. duriiiK July and AuKUst. may 
he seen as line an example of rich 
Clops commit lo maturity as in 
any part of the west Tjie conn 
try ii Aell watered and prosfM-r 
ous. Ironi the city a numher of 
lines radiate, and two main lines 
separate, one swinginK "n tj the 
west. throuKh Mrandon. KeKina. 
and Saskatoon to I'rince Albert. 
crossinK the mam line at NX'arman; 
the main line continuing north 
westerly from Portage to Dauphin 
direction through the Saskatchewan 

Irom McCreary a branch run.i 
south to Neepawu. where it meets 
a line coming from the south and 
continues on to Canora. 

F-rc>m Dauphin, an im[x>rtant 
Canadian National line runs north 
and west through the famous Swan 
Kiver and Carrot River valleys to 
Prince Albert. Sask.. continuing on 
through Shellbrook to North Bat- 
tleford. In the areas served 

farms have been under cultiva- 
tion for a quarter of a century 
without a drought or total failure 

WINNIPF.G TO \ A.\v Ol \ IK 


M'«. (it. Ml 

^ mnt|>riK 

22H 4 


H2 h 


24(1 4 


247 (1 


2S2 4 


2')7 4 

Toiiii, Siisk 

2W> 1 

Kiinii> mt'ili 

272 «, 


2, 7 

K.iniHiit k 



2'»5 4 


102 7 


♦O") <) 


117 2 

HiK lKin;IM 

4..'8 2 


MS ') 






i'tH (» 


16S S 


171 1 

Pask Welti n 

178 2 


386 7 

Ouill lake 

1<)1 ^ 


398 9 





















1 VJ7 





164 = 






1 7<»<> 


1 7'>4 











IIMin .ins i.iiixr I lie tun. (\ ti.iii 
iii.kIc (lie •itroiiKc-.i .ip|hmI Ui tin- 
■lurii iiiniriMl Iruui Mrit.iin. A l.irKP 
niiinlirr iif •■,!; vc(ini,iiir v fr. m 

llic Itritisii 1%, wrli vrrnr,' m 

all till- pr.ii iKfn i>f His ' rxitiml 
.iKri< iiltiirc. .iricl miiIi a L iuiwicdKC 
of -(tcKk. Ii.ivr Mflilpd in ifirso dit- 
irittH Ills. I rcidiin <tlM>unclinK in 
IxMiiliiiil iiiiiiir sitcH 

I lie Mi.iin linr runs wenl (roni 

l)iiti|ilim<lx (lie v.illcy of tlie 

nixkatclK' I lip limt two 

•x)int« (it itniHirt.inrr arc K ,n- 

<rk und ( .mora. wlii» h are tfie 

narkrl lowri.f for u considrrahle 

dixtrKt wli«-rr opfKjrtunitiPn for 

<l,iir\ fartiiinif an. I (xjullrv raisinif 

prpjicnl llH'tii.HpJveN ■•irniiar 'ottiose 

wliidi prt'V.iil in the Daiipliin. 

Swan Kiypr and Carrol Kiver hcc- 

lionH \X'eHl of C'unor.i the mam line 

t'ntc-rs ,1 ri'Kion of level ex 

rcplionalK well adapted for niixcd 

lariiimK I lie soil in of -y 


f. ■ AT . 

H^ '.f'^. 

Harvrnting in .Manitoba 




MU. Jroni 

404 9 
412 3 
419 8 


460 7 












499 3 


St. (irejjor 










War man 













1676 1 
1722 4 
1706. .6 
1512 2 
1636 9 
1721 4 

1893 2 
1804 9 
1709 4 

strains, is located. Continuing 

black loam, with a clay sub-soil, 
and there i.s plenty of pure water. 
The next point is Humbolt. 
The town is a divisional point of 
the Canadian National Railways, 
and its growth has been steady. 
It is located in a rich agricultural 

At Warman. the main line in- 
tersects the Winnipeg-Prince Al- 
bert line by way of Brandon. Re- 
gina and Saskatoon. The junction 
point is 1 3 miles to the north of 
Saskatoon, so that the people of 
that ambitious city have the ad- 
vantage of a double train service 
over the Canadian National to 
Winnipeg. Twenty-five miles north 
of Warman. on the line to Prince 
Albert, is the town of Rosthern, 
near which the farm of Seager 
Wheeler, the world's < hanipion 
wheat grower and producer of new 
westward from Warman on the main 

The Prince Albert Motel, Brandon, Man. 
Under Canadian National Railways Management! 






Page 7 

Mid. from 

572 7 

North Hattleford Alt. 1624 

583 4 


• 1787 

591 7 


■ 1825 

598 9 


■ 1803 

6w6 6 


• 1852 8 



' 1852 

622 6 


' 1938 8 

630 4 


• 2105 1 


Lash burn 

' 2018 5 

645 3 


• 2014 3 

651 6 


■ 2033 8 

657 2 

line, the towns of Dalmeny. l.ungham, Borden. Radisson. Maymont. 
Ruddell. are passed through, and at Denholm. junction is et'ected 
with the line from Prince Albert and the Shelbrook Lake country 

Brada is passed, and then the city of North Battleford is reached. 

North f3attleford. population 
5.000. is practically equidistant 
between Port Arthur and Vancou- 
ver. It is a divisional point of the 
Canadian National Railways, the 
terminus for the line to Prince 
Albert, via Denholm. and also for 
a line running north-westerly 
through a splendid mixed farming 
area towards Athabaska Landing 
in Alberta, and it is one of the 
seven cities in the Province of 
Saskatchewan. Its growth has 
been rapid, as the town was brought into being on the construction 
of the main line through, towards Edmonton, in 1905 It is the centre 
of a rich agricultural area where mixed farming is generally practised. 
The city owns its electric light plant, and its water and sewerage 
systems. Its streets are well lighted and there are many miles of 
cement side-walks. North Battleford has also an inexhaustible 
supply of pure water, drained from an intake well on the banks of 
the Saskatchewan and filtered through a large sand bed. 

From North Battleford Junction a branch line runs down the 
south bank to Old Battleford. at the confluence of the Battle and 
Saskatchewan Rivers. Old Battleford is one of the points import- 
ant historically in Western Canada, because of the stirring incidents 
which took place in the district during the Riel Rebellion. 

Moydminster, Alt. 2119 9 The next outstanding point is 
^^"'*- Lloydminster, which is located ex 

A Manitoba Hume Thrpc years from the Prairie slate 

Page 8 


MU. from 

664 2 

682 4 
690 2 

Blackfoot Alt. 2222 4 actly on the boundary line between 

Kitscoty • 2I9« the Province of Saskatchewan and 

's'ay •• 1999 5 Alberta; the post ofhce being in 

Borradaik' " 20 59 .S:iskatchcwan and the Canadian Na- 

tional Kiiilways station in Alberta. 

The population is approximately 1 ,000. Surroundini; Lloydminster 
are the farms ol t lie Barr Colonists, an all-Bri I ish group of immigrants 
numbering upwards of 2.(100. who arrived m the country with but 
scant equipment and knowledge for pioneering. The inherent pro- 
ductiveness of the country, combined with the persistence of the 
Britishers, res'ilted in the establishmcTt of one of the most pros- 
perous communities in Western Canida. The district is ideal 
for inixed farming operations and produces splendid crops of grain 
yearly. As a matter of fact, a trophv for the best oats in the 
v/orld was won by J. C. Hill *c Sons, ni Lloydminster, for three years 
in succession, and the cup is now the property of the exhibitors. 
J. C. Hill was a Barr Colonist. He came from London, and had no 
farm experience before landing in Canada. 

697.2 Vermilion Alt. 2029 5 


Claysmore Alt. 2067 4 

The next place of importance reached 

is Vermilion, a divisional point, popula- 

tion 1,300 Vermilion is the name also 

applied to the region draining into the Vermilion Valley (the river 

IS narrow, but the valley is wide), a district of great fertility. The 

soil in this vicinity is rich black loam, 
with a clay sub-soil. In the last few 
years there has been a considerable move- 
ment of settlers to this section. 
From Innisfree Hill a beautiful view of 
the surrounding country can be obtained. 
From this height can be scanned for 
miles in all directions the prairie -for 
J-.-...V. .. .o ,,u, ,,ai, but beautifully undulating and rolling 
Distances are difficult to judge, clumps of bushes look like ridges 
of trees-far off on the wavy horizon, the haze lends shades inde- 
hnite, always suggestive of higher land, as if the hill were placed 
in a vast basin. 


2086 6 
2228 6 
2150 8 
2201 6 

prairie it is not flat. 

754 4 Vegreville Alt. 2082 2 

761 2 Raith " 2168 9 

768. 1 Mundare " 2254 I 

774.7 Hilliard " 2274 5 

782.4 Chipman " 2196 

789 7 Lament • 2M9 5 

796 5 Bruderheim " 2074 5 

803 3 Scotford " 2067 3 

809.9 Ft, Saskatchewan ■■ 2048 

815 River Bend " 2116 6 

819.0 Oliver •' 2143 9 

This is the northern terminal of 
the Calgary-Vegreville line. It 
has a population of 1,300. The 
municipal authorities have carried 
out many improvements during 
the last few years. Vegreville has 
an abundant supply of pure water, 
obtained from Artesian wells, sut'ti- 
cient to take care of a place of 
much greater size. Several in- 
dustries aie located here, including 
brickyards and marble works 
The country to thenorth of the 




MU. troMi 

line is atlru< lini; st-lllers. who are i;oinij in for niix.-d fjrmini; and 
dairvins'. and meeting with success. 

827 I'.dmoiUoll A!t.2IHJ 4 (Capital of tlie Pro\ nee of Alberta, has 

a population of 68, )()(), and is splendidly 
situated on the hiijh banks of the Saskatchewan River. 
Ihe Legislative Huildinijs overlook the citv. Close by 
"ij u''! ^'n'versily of Alberta and the remains of the 
old Hudson Bay Company's fort on the site of the first trading 
I)ost established by the company in 1793. The city owns and 
operates Its public utilities The Canadian National was the first 
railway into Ldmonton, and much of the rapid progress made by 
Uie city is attributed to its shipping facilities. The Canadian 
National has for .some years been operating a service north to 
Athabasca Landing, a gateway of the Peace River country, which 
nriay be said to embrace the larger portion of Northern Alberta, 
ttie agricultural area being approximately 270 miles by JOO miles. 
Peace River Landing, at the junction of the Smoky and Peace, 
being practically the centre of the district. Ldmonton is the 
largest and most important Dominion Land Agency in Western 
F^f"L'^;?^ 'j '''"^'■"'"^s in its western ranges the entire Fourth and 
tilth Meridians. It is a rich land, possessing a uniformlv good 
soil, in addition to much natural wealth in timber, minerals and 
fisheries. The city affords a splendid local market for the agri- 
cultural products of the district, which are meeting with an in- 
creasing demand. I.dmonton is fast becoming an important 

r.Hinonton, Alta. 

Page l( 

• Ain. from 


educational centre, and its schools and colIei(es present to the settler 
facilities similar to those of the older cities of the east. Between 
Ldmonton and Athabasca Landing, and north of the Saskatch- 
ewan River, there are still some homesteads open to settlers 
homesteads of quality equal to anything yet settled in the West. 
The Canadian National line, building between North Battleford 
and Athabasca Landing, will also serve a territory which is well 
watered and possessing plenty of wood or fuel as well as timber 
for building purposes. Many coal mines are being worked, so that 
fuel is comparatively cheap, and it is a well-known fact that many 
settlers get all the coal they need for domestic purposes on th'^ir 
own farms. 


Via Brandon. Regina, and Saskatoon. 

The main line from Winnipeg to Edmonton, by way of Dauphin, 
is known as the "Saskatchewan Valley Route." Through trains 
also run via fBrandon, Regina. Saskatoon, and Warman to Edmon- 
ton, and to the city of Prince Albert. 

Brandon, 1 35 miles west from Winnipeg, 
Brundun Alt 1260 has a population of 18.000. and is the 

centre of one of the most prosperous 
agricultural districts in Canada. It has grain elevators, flour mills, 
planing mills, and a number of large wholesale houses. In Brandon 
is a central steam system by which a large part of the city is satis- 
factorily and economically heated. Within the city limits is an 
experimental farm, conducted by the Dominion Government. The 

Provincial Pailiament Buildings, Regina. Sask 



Mia. from 

Prince Edward Hotel, owned and operated by the Canadian 
National Railways, is amongst the finest of the hotels in the Middle 
West. It adjoins the Canadian National Railways Station, and. 
its service and moderate charge attract a lurpe numher of prople 
to Brandon. The Brandon Agricultural ["air i.s a :iios' suc(.-sful 
annual event. 

Regina. 356 miles west ft in Vlinnipeg, has 
Keftinu Alt. 1896 4 a population of 45.()0(>. and s the capital 

of the Province of Saskatchewan. The 
Legislative Buildings are situated in a park of 160 acres on the 
south side of Wascana Lake, and are a most imposing pile. Regina 
has a fine Exhibition Park, where an annual exhibition is held, 
which is particularly noted for the high quality of its pure-bred 
stock, and the character of the grain and grasses shown. The 
city is the commercial centre of a large area. 

Saskatoon. 516 miles west from Winnipeg. 
Saskatoon Alt. 1589 7 claims a population of 27.000. and has 

become a distributing centre for a coun- 
try -erved by approximately 1.500 miles of railway line. Most 
of the important manufacturers and wholesalers of the {".ast are 
represented in Saskatoon, which enjoys the unique distincticn of 
having risen from a population of I I 3 people I i years ago. Saska- 
toon is a town of Canadian National creation. The Provincial 
Government has established a University here, and in connection 
therewith is an Experimental Farm, which already has accom- 
plished excellent work. 


The Canadian National Railways serve practically all towns 
and cities of importance in Western Canada. Amongst those not 
covered by the route of this train may be mentioned: 

Saskatoon. Sask. 

Page 12 


Ml«, (roiii 

Moose Jaw, with a population of 20,000 
Moose .'aw Alt. 1798 lias mills and elevators and large stock 

yards, is tlie centre of a rich agricul- 
tural district, a commercial point of imfxjrlance. having a num- 
ber of wholesale and distributing houses. The name Moose 
Jaw is taken from the translation of an Indian phrase which means 
■■ 1 he Creek where white man mended carl with Moose Jaw bone." 

Calgary, with a population of 80.000, is 
Calgary Alt. ',446 the largest city in the Province of Alberta. 

The Canadian National line between Calgary 
and Saskatoon, through Hanna, has opened up one of the best 
sections of the country, and has reduced the railway mileage 
between jx>ints by 200 mile.- effecting a great saving in the 
cost of freight and greatly benefiting the country. 

Prince Albert, with a population of 
Prince Albert Alt. I4i 5 i 13.000, is beautifully situated on the 

banks of the North Saskatchewan 
River. It is the centre of a remarkably rich country, both in agri 
cultural resources and in timber, besides other undeveloped natural 
resources, including electric power. The homesteads thrown open 
here are particularly well adapted for mixed farming; indeed, 
with the right class of crops and diversified farming, settlers are 
bound to be successful. To the man of limited capital it offers 
special inducements. The enormous lumbering operations employ 
a number of men during both the winter and the summer months. 

836 8 

St. Albert 



844 8 




851 2 




857 1 




861 2 




869 9 

Alberta Beach " 


The line runs northwest from Edrr ^n- 
2218 ton to St. Albert, where the branch 
2231 to Athabasca Landing leaves the main 
2243 line. At Viileneuve is an Indian Re- 
2333 serve, through which the line passes 
2386 for about six miles. The railway 
follows the valley of the Sturgeon 
River to Peace River Junction, from which point another line into 
the Peace River country is under construction. 

Lac Ste. Anne is becoming a verv 
873 7 Lac .Ste. Anne Alt. 2417 popular summer resort. The land 

in the vicinity is of excellent quality 
and .-^ table for mixed farming. Settlers are "-adually coming 
into this district, and the homesteads near the li. v are all taken up. 

The line passes alont; Isle Lake, the 
shores of which are fringed with 
spruce and poplar. There are some 
coal outcroppings here, and settlers 
heat their houses with the coal 
taken off their own farms. The soil 
is a deep black loam, with a clay 
sub-soil. West of the Lake, there 

879 9 


Alt. 2429 

885 3 

Lake Isle 

• 2406 

893 2 


•• 2456 

898 9 


899 7 


•• 2518 



• 2576 

909 9 


•• 2616 


Page 13 

rv1l». from 


918 4 


919 8 




931 4 


Alt, 25% arc large hu> .sIoukIis, Ciip<tble of pro- 
2611 ducing immense quantities of hay. 
2657 () '['he line then south of Cliip- 
2736 lake, where settlers catch fish, and 
salt them lor winter use. The line 
is well watered by numerous creeks and springs. Coldwater Creek 
and LobstickRiverare crossed. South of Chi|>lake there is a good- 
sized settlement, and the ^'ellowhead Pass pack trail traverses 
it from east to west. The land is rolling, and consists of a suc- 
cession of ridges from 1 5 to 30 feet high, with wide intervening 
valleys. Part ol the district has been burnt over, which has 
much assisted settlers in clearing their land, and has not in any way 
injured the soil. Leaving fidson, the mountains can be ,^n in the 

distance very distinctly. f-^rom this 
point to Obed the land is rolling and 
with ridges of higher elevation. There 
are some groves of mixed poplar and 
jackpine seen from the railway. The 
country is watered throughout by many 
small creeks, and the water is pure and 
abundant. Alon« the course of some 
of these creeks old meadows are 
found which provide good pasturage Taken as a whole, the land 
is well adapted to grain-growing and mixed farming. 

941 6 

Peers Alt 


952 5 

Wolf Creek " 


%2 3 



970 6 



973 6 



987 6 

Medicine 1,'ge" 


9% 8 



Allicrta Calllc 

Page 14 


MIk. (rofii 


The traveller westward leaves with regret the waving wheat 
(icids and rich country of the Prairie Provinces, where the Canadian 
National has spread a labyrint!' of li. 5s. and i pened to settlement 
a wonderful country, with magnificent plains and beautiful valleys, 
once unproductive, but which has now earned the title of the 
"World's Breadbasket." 

As the train speeds west, the country becomes rougher and the 
timl)er larger. Looming up in the distance the outlines of the 
Rocky Mountains are clothed in blue haze. The line follows for 
many miles the route followed by David Thompson aloni? the 
Athabasca. Ascending the valley, one can pictuie the stirrmg 
days of a hundred years ago, when this was a centre of the fur trade, 
and the Indians used to come in on snow shoes with dog trains, 
bringing in their pelts and bartering with the traders. 

1023 Kntntnce Alt , 

The Gateway to Jasper Park and the 
Rocky Mountains At first only a 
•jlimpse of white peaks are seen between 
rim cliffs rising 8.000 feet above the sea 
Passing on, the f'iddle Creek Range comes into the picture with 
Pyramid Mountain, a landmark of the traders of the "Northwest 
Company," standing sentinel in the background at the entrance to 
the Yellowhead Pass, 

The line follows the Athabasca River 
1028 .Solomon Alt. ?248 and runs dong the north side of Brule 

Lake for seven miles. At the east end of 
the lake, Solomon Creek comes in from the north, where David 
Thompson, the explorer, spent part of the winter of 1810. This 
is said to be the site of a very old trading post run by what were 
known as the "free traders." who took the opportunity afforded 
by the fights between the Northwest Trading Company and the 
Hudson Bay Company to catch the Indians coming in from the 
plains east of the Rockies with their rich catches of furs. On account 
of a legend cut in an old trcj. which existed up to a few years ago. 
It was thought this was one of the posts of the X. Y Company, 
an offshoot of the Northwest Trading Company. Mr. Tyrell is of 
opinion that the operations of the X. Y. Comfiany did not extend 
to this district. On an island in the lake near this point David 
Thompson visited the camp of an Iroquois Indian, who was un- 
doubtedly one of the party of Iroquois who made the great trek 
from the [".ast, arriving at Edmonton 1805. The railway runs in 
the vicinity of the exfXJsure of the Brule Lake coal area on the 
west side of the valley. A deposit of coal, 
1931 Krriilgton Alt said to be one of the best quality yet dis- 
covered m Alberta, is being worked there. 
The northern limit of this coal field has not yet been ascertained, 
but from the general topography it is probable that it extends 
into the toothilU as far as the .Smoky River. ,Tnd is closely connected 
with another area wuhin the mountain on Moose Creek. The Brule 
loal area is estimated by the Department of Mines to contain over 


Page I 3 

Ml. from 


()(M).()U'in(M) tons of cortl. Oilier dlstrictH on the same side of tnc 
Atfiabasca arc known to cotit.iin coal, but their area has not yet 
l>een defined. 

An eight hundred foot tunnel carries the line 
ISrulo Alt. 326S under the .slope of (ioule Roche Mountain. 

Upon cmcrHinK. a splendid view is obtained of 
Roche de Sniet to the north ana of Roche Miettc on the other side 
of the Athabasca. This i.iountain rises nearly H MOO feet alxjve 
the sea level, a great rock mass eroded at the cre:*l in an im^jossible 
style of mountain architecture; at the fides great buttresses stand 
out. Crowning all are jierpendicular cliffs broken by chimneys, 
giving the whoic a castellated appearance tliat reminds one of a 
huge fortress with its strong tower or keep at the high<.-st point. 
The lowest rocks outcropping here are of Cambrian age. and under- 
lie a series of sediments capped by fossiliferous Devonian hmeslone 
which is exposed in the cliff. 

The traveller here reaches a portion of the park where mountain 
gcat and mountain sheep are plentiful. The protection given to the 
game has had the effect not only of increasing the quantity, but 
in some- cases of making them lose the f'iar of man. This is particu 
larly so in the case of 'he mountai. siieep on the slopes of Boule 
Roche Mountain and the hills west of it close to the railway. 1 he 
mou' tain sheep is one of ihe most wary and timid of animals, 
with a wonderful eye; it can always the man before being seen, 
and hunters find the sheep looking at them, however careful their 
approach, regardless of the direction of the wind, yet here they 
are seen nearly every day. also over at Pochhontas. feeding on the 

F'vianiid Mt untain. I'.nlranrc F*dNs 

'A'vat -«n"-Sfc 




MU. frnrn 

hill». and often comina rinlit down to tlir r.iilwuy. where they can 
be •- en from puHNJnK trjins. 

At the f)ot of Koche Miette. the swift 
1040 Iti-dson All UM (lowinu Ath.>l>a!tLi» Kiver widens und »plUi 
1046 Dcvon.l »i04 into several small channels Here the line 

crosses the Stonev Kiver ahout 'hrec c|Uar 
tern of u mile inland. This stream comes in from the west anfl turns 
north, running parallel v\illi the line for some <listance. On the 
opposite side, in the valley hetwcen the I iddle Hack KanKe and the 
Colin KanRC. which rc.irs its ra^Ked peaks of grey limestone '>.()()() 
feet in altitude, the Rocky Kiver (lows in. Near the mouth of the 
river, under the shelter of Hoche Miette Mountain, on a level 
plateau called the Jasper I'lats. is most prolialily the site of the 
celebrated old Northwest Company's f'ost. Jasper This 
post was probably established by jasper Hawes in 181 I or IMI2. 

Kix k\ Mrturil.iin (iniits 


aiz^frr;;s9ii9MS!f; m 

Wl NNIIM.C. lO \ ,\\(()l \ i K 

I'uKt 17 

MU frtiiii 

\V|III1I|H , 





ltir>tMr f..llov\iiiK n.ivitri iKiinixoMH fliNKivcry of Allmlm»i.i I'uM 
/VcordiriK l<> 'l\rri-ll .Lmpt-r workctl fur I tionipnon «in tfip f'dce 
in IH()4 l.iiUr on. wlit-n Julin McC.illivr.. . in cfiurKc of llip Com 
J«n.v » oiM-ralionn .il l.fHsrr Mavc l.ukv. t.Mik over the Atimliadca 
alley, lie prolwhly sent in .)u»per I l.iwes to (i,n<luit u lradini{ .it this |«.iiii There i.s no Ir.ue «t tlii.s l>uil<|in({. bur very old Ir.iils can he seen le.idinn m from (lie valley of the Rocky 
River on the south and ftom the Sloney to the Athuhanca River, 
where there i.s the liCMt ford for many niiles In \ earn gone by. theCree 
Indians, (oniinR from their hunting and trapping grouncls on the 
Smoky, the Sulphur and the Stoney River, UHe<l to bring their fum 
into thi.H post. Another old trail used to come down the valley 
from the upper waters <if the Athabasca and the Whirlptiol Rivers, 
and tlier; is little dou!>t Indians used to come in through Poboktan 
Pass to irude at this post and at Henry House 

After leaving the shore of the |asper I^ake 
SnarillttAlt. M'H) O the line skirts the base of mountains of 

lJ<^vonian limestone and crosses the Snaring 
River, which (lows across Henry House flat. To the west is a view 
of the beautiful Snaring valley, with its snow capped peaks and 

I here is only a vestige left of Henry 
Hvnry Iloilsi' Alt. 3MH House to mark this historic old 

post of the Northwest Company, 
near the outlet of the Maligne River at the upper end 
of the S formed by the channel of the Alliabas-a This is one 
of the be," fording places along the river above Jasper House 
It can be plainly seen from Henry House Station. Williarr Henry, 
who was in charge of this trading post, is the Henry who acco.ii- 
panied Thompson in IHIO. and must not be confounded with Alex- 
ander Henry the pioneer explorer. Records go to show that Thomp 
son established a camp somewhere in Jie valley, but the point hasnol 
yet been determined, though Mr. Tyrrell says that David Thomp- 
son took observations which are recorded in his journals Henry 
House may have been the camp It would ap^iear that 
Henry accomixinied Thomjxson to Whirlpool River, but was sent 
back with some of the horses on account of the lack of feed In all 
probability Henry House was opened as a trading post in 181 I. 
In the near future the actual site of the post will pr sibly be de 
termined by a survey, in which event it is contemplated that a 
stone cai i be erected to mark the spot. 

On the op(X)$ite side of the Athabasca 
Jasper Alt. 3456 is the outlet of the Maligne River, one of 

the most remarkable streams in North 
America, running for miles underground. The Maligne River 
is a much larger body of water, flowing into Medicine Lake. 10 
miles above, than it is entering the .Athabasca, and this is something 
that has never been explained, but it is surmised that it is more 
or less subterranean all the way from .VIedicine Lake. The original 
bed of fhf strerim now rnos-grown. may be fulio-.vcd for milcT. and 
where the water reappears in the Canyon only a comparatively small 
quantity of it is visible. The Canyon is one of the most spectacular 
in the Rocky Mountains; its bed, which the stream has been cutting 

Pi ''WW^SJfimViMMNIK^ 

I'uKe 18 

N()ri:s BY I HI. \^A\ 

\1U friiiii 

th'oiiKli for (rnturirN, in eiu lonecl l>y wulU. in mitiir pliura ^(M) 
Iret liiifh. unri it ntirniw* in inuny pliicm to Irsn tliiin 10 feet in 
widlli In» ijcinr l)y ifie wulcm uppear to luivc tlowrri in Vitriouit 
chunnria On the Niirfttcr ahove in«> l)e itecn Ihik*- ihiI (ioIcii. nome 
of them over "id feel in rleplli. cut out of the roik In the swirling 
wuleri) A lindKe lian !)een built over u part of llie Canyon, where 
a view of the Korgr is ohtuined Here a lieuiilifiil «a»na<Je fullii 
precipitou*ly ul u |M>int where the chaitni reaches its nirrowcut 
width, the '..aterH di»apt>earinK in the deplli.i lielow 

Ilie valley wi<|en.H at .|a!t|ier, whuh iit situ- 
1076 2 (iflkif All iS'JO ated on a plateau at the bam- of the f'yramid 

.M<iuntain altitude *>,02<) done to the 
cnlrunce of the ^'ellowhead \\<hh. at the ((influence of the Mielle 
and AthabaNca KiverH. jasper Mountain, altitude '>.4H6, with its 
•now lapped |)eali, overlooko the town, which i» the headiiuartem 
of the Dominion (iovernmcnt ofhciaJ!! who have the Hu|)ervi!iion 
of Jaiper f'ark. a k"'"'^ preserve and forest reservation of 4,000 
Mjuare miles. A beautiful townsite has been laid out, with the 
(government buildinK, a handsome stone structure of artistic de 
sin ir^ the centre Under the direction of the Dominion Parks 
fJrarch of the l)e(><irtment ol the Interior, plans are beinif carried 
out for the rapid development of the surrounding country by buildinK 

Maligne Lake. Jasper Park, \lta. 


vvinmi'i:g io vancouvi.r 



Ml. fi. 

roiul* and Iruilii to mukr il ttucumhlr My ihu meann wiiiir •>( the 
lineat menerv in the Kmkv Mountains tiiav !>«• rcachfti from lino 

A Iruil liiis Iwfn liijilt liy w.iy ol Malitjnr (.orue alonK tlir vullry 
between the Mdliifne Mounlmn unci tlir( »i|in Kanue f>ii»t Mr<li< mr 
l.ttkc. to MaliKne I.ukc- lliis is |>erha|» tl,.- most hraiiliful slieel ..( 
wnter m llic HockiCH. »iirr<iiin<le<l l>> ini..intains which ri«e Iroiii 
the »undy beached at the water's v<l^v Ihe e(fe< I of (he miioh 
cap[)«l |)eak», with their brown shale ex(M>i(ureH spLi-ihed with 
rriiiiMin stums, the rKk lers and the dark verdure of the l.iolhills 
redetted in the water, form a piitiire of .irna/inK l>«aiil\ Ihe 

traveller rr return from the lake by wav of Shovel f'ass. whith 
takes him {.,, to un altitude of nearly M (MM> feet, and allor<ls one 
of the finest views i the mountain lie fields, a hiindre.j snow 

Ml Kdith ( aveli. Jasprr I'aik, .Mtu 


Page 20 


Mia. from 

'-apped mountains, most of them unnamed, may be seen from an 
elevation a few feet alrave the Pass. On the descent. Mount Edith 
Cavell in all its magnificence is in full view, and grim Hardisfy in 
the distance. 

Mount Edith Cavell, a monument reared by nature, has been de- 
signated by Canada a memorial to the heroic British Red Cross nurse 
who perished under the bullets of a German firing squad in Belgium. 
It is a mountain of striking beauty, from the gently rolling park- 
lands at its base to the rrown of glistening snow at the peak. I 1 ,033 
feet above the sea. A glacier with arms extended in the form of a 
cross clings to its slope. Its foot is carpeted with the rosy-hued 
heather and uncountable varicoloured flowers of the wild. In all 
the world there is probably no other memorial so simply grand as 
this to an humble nurse of the Red Cross who saw her duty and 
did it. 

Plans for the further improving of the trail to Mount Edith 
Cavell are in progress. Even now the journey is neither difficult 
nor dangerous, and the mountain vistas at the end of the trail 
are well worth a much greater effort. 

By taking a bridle trail from the station at Jasper up Mount 
Tekarra, a magnificent view of the valley of the Athabasca can 
be obtained, and the course of David Thompson on his memorable 
journey may be followed by the eye up to the Whirlpool River, 
past Mount Edith Cavell, and on towards the Athabasca Pass and 
the Committee's Punch Bowl. 

Packers and outfitters have made Jasper a headquarters, and some 
of the best guides in British Columbia are stationed here. Hun- 
dreds of pack horses and riding ponies of the Cayuse brand are 
available at short notice to handle parties of any size. The class 
of^ien guiding here are of a type peculiar to this place only, gener- 
ally Alberta or British Columbia born, often University r 
but frontiersmen nevertheless, equally used to riding the pl„. 
or the mountain trail, with a knowledge of the country and 
marvellous fund of anecdote. Brewster Bros, and Moore are 
perhaps the best known packers and outfitters. Their hunting 
trips and exploratory work has carried them from the northern 
regions of the Athabasca and the Peace down to the American 
boundary, and their knowledge of the hunting districts is in con- 
sequence very wide. 

Mount Tekarra reaches an altitude of about 9,300 feet, and 
IS not difficult to climb. From the Gendarme, a lower peak, altitude 
c l' "a* L^t "■ "' ^''^^ °^ ^^^ mountain, there is a magnificent view 
of the Athabasca valley. The rich colouring of the reds and blues 
of Pyramid Mountain, altitude 3,467, arrests the attention first, 
arid as the eye follows the tortuous course of the river the Mali 



iver IS seen to come in between the Colin Range and the Maligi 
Range, of which Mount Tekarra forms a part. About two mik, 
below can be clearly distinguished what is said to be the site 
of Henry House, Down the river nn the opposite side, three snow 

WINNIPEG TO vancouvi:r 

Page 21 

Mia. from 

capped peaks of the Snaring Mountains appear, and below them 
another range, with Roche De Smet (named after the pioneer 
missionary. Father De Smet) in the distance. Eighteen lakes can be 
seen from this mountain: the waters of most of them are of an 
emerald green, so brilliant that the colour is a difficult effect to 

Below is the town ol Jasper, and a view up the Yellowhead 
Pass, where the Miette River comes down like a silver thread be- 
tween the mountain ranges on each side of the Pass. 

Looking up the river a panorama of even greater beauty is 
seen. On the left of the Athabasca, in the distance, is Hardisty. 
snow-capped and grim, rising to a great height. On the opposite 
side of the valley, but nearer, is Mount Edith Cavell. over I 1,000 
feet high, with glaciers that appear to come right down to the 
foothills. Nearer, on the same side as Mount E-.dith Cavell, an un- 
named mountain stands back some distance, with a large glacier 
which seems to end in a crater-like cup. Up the Athabasca, the 
Whirlpool River is seen coming out of the hills and joining the 
Athabasca, and the mind travels back to the historic year of 1810 
when David Thompson ascended this river and discovered the 
Athabasca Pass. Edith Cavell Creek can be seen coming from the 
back of the mountain after which it is named, then nearer to us 
Boulder Creek, both glacial streams that enter the Athabasca. 
The scene from Jasper Mountain is not only beautiful, but affords 
the traveller an opportunity of obtaining some idea of the geography 
of the country, and a birdseye view of the poin s of historic interest. 

At the Height of Land, elevation 3.725. little distance divides 
the watercourse of Miette, which flows into the Athabasca, and 
thence to the Arctic Ocean, and the headwaters of the Eraser River, 
which flows into the Pacific. 

The railway follows a bench of the old river bed, and turning 
to the west enters the south end of the town of Jasper, which is 
the best part, and which will undoubtedly be the residential centre, 
as it is finely wooded and lends itself to the landscape work which 
is being carried out by the Park authorities. Here the line enters 
the Yellowhead Pass, following the Miette River for twelve miles. 
The Miette Mountains bound the south and the Pyramid Range 
the north side of the Pass. 

The summit, which is the boundary between 
1076 Cavell Alt. 3631 Alberta and British Columbia, is reached at 

Mile 2547.1, where the Continental divide, 
the backbone of Canada is crossed. 

Two and a half miles brings 
• 085 7 Yellowhead Summit Alt. 3712 us to Yellowhead Lake. Of 

all the lakes in the district ■ 
their name is legion and the colour of their water varied and beauti- 
ful —this lake appeals most to the traveller. Irregular in outline, 
it stretches for four and a half miles, its water a creamy sap green, 
and for the most part surrounded by a dense forest. On the south 
side, near the centre, a fine cascading glacial stream comes in from 
the snows of Mount rilzwiiiiain. 

Page 11 

MU. (rom 



I.uci'rne, B.C. Alt. 3650 The line runs south of Yellowhead 

Lake to Lucerne, which is five miles 
from the boundary; this is a Canadian National Railways divi- 
sional point. From the town there is a magnificent view of Mount 
f' itzwilliam. which rises to an altitude of 9,600 feet. Back of Lucerne, 
an old Indian trail leads round the base of IVIount f"itzwilliam. through 
a pass, into the mountains beyond. This is a virgin country that will 
he of wonderful interest to Alpine climbers, as there are several 
icefields and numbers of mountains to the south that are un- 
named and unclimbed. 

From the lookout at an elevation of 6.000 (eet. large ice fields 
can be seen. Thirty snow-capped mountains can be counted, and 
a number of beautiful glaciers, so that Lucerne will undoubtedly be 
a centre for the exploration of one of the most interesting countries 
in this part of the Rocky Mountains. Within the townsite there 
is a very pretty little lake situated on a point which juts out into 
the Yellowhead Lake. This point of land will later be laid out 
a.« a park. Yellowhead Lake runs into th - Fraser River which 
rises in the mountain range southwest of M int Pelee 

1100 Grantbrook AJt. 3453 

T^>e line crosses the Fraser twice, and 

)ws the river to Crantbrook. over 

.;ch a fine steel bridge has been built 

about half a mile west of the station. This stream, in which there 

is very good trout fishing, rises near the Alberta boundary, ffows 

down the valley west of Mount Mowat and enters the Fraser. 

Moose River is reached, and the swift water of this turbulent 
stream is crossed at the foot of Rainbow Canyon, up which there 
are three large cascades. Only a few hundred yards from the rail- 

l.uccrnc and Yellowhead Mts, Canadian Rockies. BC 

'i "ix ,: . 


Page 2 5 

Mis from 

I 107 


way is Rainbow lalls. a tieautiful cataract wliicli rushes <lown 
between precipitous walls of over I H) feel just before it reaches 
the outlet of the Canyon. 1 he sides of the Canyon are beautifully 
wooded, and the trail, which gives a number ol opportunities to 
see the Whirlpool and the 'alls, is one of the greatest attractions 
of the district. There is a trail from here to .Mount Robson. 

The line lies along the north side of Moose Lake, a beautiful 
body of water, eight miles long and from half a mile to a .tiile and 
a half wide At Rainbow Station, a beau- 
Kainhow Alt. 3 5'M tiful fall can be seen across the lake, 
coming from the glaciers of mountains 
concealed from view in the .Sellwyn range, which falls about 1.000 
feel down the mountain side and into the lake. 

At the foot of Moose Lake, the line crosses the ["raser River 
for the last time, and runs to Resplendent. While the mountain 

of that name is not visible at this 
Kespleildfllt Alt. pxiint. there are some of the most 

beautiful views of the valley, including 
the Rasor Peak. Mount Kahn. and unnamed mountains of 
lesser altitude. The line follows the .south side of the valley of the 
Fraser River, running along the base of the mountains of the 
Sellwyn range high above the river. 

.Mount Robsor., the highest and most 
majestic peak of the Canadian Rockies, 
rises^to an altitude of I 3.087 feet. Its 
pointed apex of ice can be seen for some miles from the train. 

1120 .Mt. Robson Alt. 

Ml. Rolison. H.C 

Page 24 


Mia. from 

befo.e it bursts in full view where the Grand Forks River enters 
the Fraser. Its precipitous base is but four and a half miles as the 
crow flies from Robson Station. At the head of the low valley its 
tremendous cliffs, too steep for snow to lie. rise up ten thousand 
feet, crowned with a snowy pyramid. A trail leads up the Grand 
Forks through a magnificent forest of giant cedar and fir. through 
the Valley of a Thousand Falls, where the river tumbles 1,500 
feet in a wild Canyon. The trail leads to the rear of the mountain. 
The peak rises majestically, cliff on cliff, for over 7.000 feet above 
Berg Lake, to its summit, where the vapours of the Pacific gather 
nearly every day in the year. The snow clings to the steep side of 
the upper peak in long ribbons quite to the crest; gathering below, 
it forms a ntvij. which pushes out and divides into two streams of 
ice that fall and slip down the steep inclines for nearly 
a mile. That on the right is known as the Mist Glacier. 
The stream on the left forms the Tumbling Glacier, which extends 
two miles in horizontal distance, and has 7.000 feet vertical descent 
between the snow cornices of the mountain and its foot at Berg 
Lake .where the ice is thrust down to the water to break away and 
float off in bergs, which double themselves by reflection. The great 
black portion of the mountain in the centre is called Rearguard, 
which rises dark and massi"" above Berg Lake. Beyond this, 
on the left, is the enormoi.- fiain glacier, literally a flowing river 
of ice. reaching for over three miles back to Mount Robson and the 
unbroken snow slope of Mount Resplendent (altitude 1 1,000 feet). 
The water coming from the ice caves of the main glacier flows 
chiefly into Berg Lake and the Grand Forks, but a smaller part 
reaches Lake Adolphus and Smoky River, a tributary of the Mac- 
kenzie River. Thus, as you gaze on this wonderful scene, you can 
see the headwaters of streams from the same glacier flowing on 
their way to both the Arctic and Pacific Oceans. Words convey 
little idea of the magnificence of Mount Robson. Perhaps the 
best description is that of Milton and Cheadle in their search for 
the "Northwest Passage by Land." as they saw it from the Fraser 

"On every side the snowy heads of mighty hills crowded round, 
whilst immediately behind us a giant of giants and immeasurably 
supreme rose Robson's Peak. This magnificent mountain is of 
conical form, glacier clothed and rugged. When v/e first '■"Ught 
sight of it a shroud of mist partially enveloped the summit, but this 
presently rolled away, and we saw its upper portion dimmed by a 
necklace of light, feathery clouds, beyond which its pointed apex of 
ice glittering in the morning sun shot up fa.- into the blue heaven 
above to a height of probably 10,000 or 13,000 feet." 

For magnificent scenery, the panorama of the Fraser and Grand 
Forks for some miles from the line of the Canadian National, 500 
feet above the valley floor, surpasses anything to be seen on any 
other railway in America. Huge cliffs and mountains rise to an 
enormous height almost perpendicular from the railway Mount 
Robson is in full view for about 9 miles, the huge mass towering 
above us and appe.<»ring tn rise higher nnd higher as you proceed 
down the valley. In all directions are snow-capped peaks, many 
of them over 10.000 feet. 


Page 23 

Mis. from 



1 he line swings round the bend of the valley 
Morey Alt. 3059 with Robson in the background. Longstaff 

(altitude 10.530). Little Cirizzly. Whitehorne 
(altitude 11.100). Resplendent (altitude 11.178). and other moun- 
tains of the Rainbow Range. On the opposite side are the Sellwyn 
Range, rising sheer from the line. We now pass in rapid succession 
a number of pretty waterfalls as the line crosses Cliff Creek. Bear 
Creek. Cougar Creek and several other smaller glacier streams 
that flow into the Fra.ser River. As we approach Tete Jaune Cache, 
the valley widens, and the line turns gradually southward into the 
McLennan valley, which is from 3 to 5 miles wide, hugging the foot- 
hills and passing east of Cranberry Lake. 
Juckmun Alt. 2823 On the far side the Mica Mountain Range 
rises in all its grandeur. As the name indi- 
cates, these mountains contain quantities of mica, upon which 
development is proceeding, and prospectors are at work on a num- 
ber of claims. 

On the divide between the McLennan 
1146 5 SwiftCreek Alt. 261 I and Canoe Rivers, is Cranberry Lake 

and the Cranberry Lake Flats, where 
a number of settlers have taken up land. Cranberry Lake is about 
700 acres in all. and is apparently of beaver construction. The 
benches in the vicinity of the Lake are of clay loam, and will make class farms when cleared of the timber, which is much denser 
than on the flats. The floor ' ' lU is sandy, though the sub- 

soil is clay, and will hold wate .han it appears to. In the 

opinion of the Government Land :l veyors, irrigation will be 
necessary before successful farming operations can beconducted along 
these benches, but as there is an abundance of water this does not ap- 

Ml I.iilli<sl,i(fc 


H ( 

Page 26 


MU. from 



pear to present any difficulty. There are four creeks between Tete 
.Jaune Cache and Cranberry Lake, the largest of these and most ac- 
cessible to the greatest area of land being Swift Creek, about one mile 
north of the lake 

It is about five miles across the valley 
Canoe River Alt. 2721 south of Cranberry Lake, and a great 

deal of it is good agricultural land. 
Here thf line swmgs to the southwest, and crosses the Canoe 
River at the foot of the Canyon through which the river emerges 
from the mountain range to the southwest. It then follows the 
west side of Camp Creek valley until near Albreda Lake, where 
it crosses to the east side of the summit. The valley is very narrow 
being only from half a mile to a mile wide, and hemmed in by high 
mountains. The Sellwyn Range, which is still in sight, looms up 
behind us to the north, and Canoe Mountain on the east, with 
patches of ice on it near the summit, forms a picture of great beauty. 
I- rom the cro.ssing of the Canoe River to the summit is twelve miles, 
and the line runs on long tangents for considerable distances at 
a time. About 18 miles down the Canoe River Valley there 
are hot springs which are said to have remarkable curative 
cjualities. Camp Creek valley is beautifully timbered, particularly 
on the west side, with cedar, fir. and spruce. There are some good 
hay meadows along this creek. Beyond this timber belt, and on 

the summit, is a willow bottom which 
.Mbri'da Alt. 2865 extends to Albreda Lake, which is of 

beaver construction. Near the summit, 
several settlers have taken up land, and appear to have quite a 
quantity of stock, as well as raising good cr. ps of grain and vege- 
tables. Through here a splendid view is obtained of Albreda Moun- 
tain, which lies to the southeast, rising to over 9.000 feet altitude. 
There are large glaciers on the north side. 

The scenery in the valley of the Canoe River is magnificent. 

Top of Mt Cook, near Alhreda. BC 



winnipi:g to vancouvmr 

Page 27 

iVIU. from 

In this connection the following mif{ht be quoted from the report of 
Mr. A. W Johnson, the (iovernment Land Surveyor: 

"In a country where scenery is a drug on the market, it may 
seem to say anything about il. l>ut I know of no grander 
views than may be obtained in the valley of the Canoe throughout 
its entire length. It rises in stupendous glaciers among the Mica 
Mountains, winds like a tortured snake across the wide flats at 
Cranberry Lake, and then flow.s for seventy miles between enormous 
rocky peaks and glaciers that are quite as fine as anything at 
Rogers Pass or |-"ield. The Albreda valley is almost as grand, and 
the Canadian National offers an unsurpassed route. 

•ro the sportsman the district offers everything from grizzly 
bear to willow-grouse. It is pre-eminently a caribou country. 
While there are plenty of goat, sheep occur only on the main range 
of the Rockies east of the Canoe. Filack bear are fairly common, 
and used to disturb our lunch-sack when left on line overnight. 
The country has been trapped lor some years with unusual success, 
but there is a large field left in the many side creeks and rivers, 
which are practically unexplored. Late in the season large full 
trout were caught in the Albred . and Canoe Rive.-s." 

This was formerly known as Thompson 
1165 CU-mina Alt. 2733 Crossing The Albreda River hi ? flows 

into the North Thompson D' \g the 
construction of the railway this place was quite as celebrated as 
the well-known "Mile 49," near Tete Jaune Cache. Thompson 
Crossing was the next stage south for the packers. On account 
of the turbulent nature of the stream they had to swim their horses 
here and convey their load over on punts or rafts, and a regular 
wide open construction town grew up, with all the usual accompani- 
ments. There are about 200 acres of land here fit for agriculture 

Mt f'Lt^william, ( e adian R»ckiss. B( 

I'agc 28 

Mia. from 


on a pretty flat at the junction of the rivers, wooded with fine 
large trees; a picturesque spot viewed fron) the railway. F-rom 
here down to Blue River, there is practically no agricultural land 
open for settlement. The little there is is held under timber license, 
and consists of stony benches timbered with hemlock. It is probable 
that a saw mill will be established at Blue River to cut the timber 
from this district, as it is not feasible to drive it further down the 
stream on account of the canyon. 

This IS u Canadian National Railways 
1201 U Blui' River Alt. 2243 divisional point, where roundhouses and 

other terminal facilities have been pro- 
vided. The land is flat, and there are some excellent hay meadows. 
Settlers have taken up the best land, though with irrigation from 
the Blue River, it is possible that the gravel flats might be made 
to produce crops. 

A short distance from the station is a very picturesque lake 
almost surrounded with snow-capped mountains, and between 
them at the upper end are two large glaciers. The silt from the 
glacial streams gives the water a cloudy appearance, and on this 
account the lake has been given the unfortunate name of "Mud 
Lake." At the upper end, about four miles away, therf. is some 
fine land with large hay meadows: these are to some extent the 
result of beaver construction. This land has not y^t been surveyed. 
Below Blue River the river increases in velocity as it enters the 
gorge and races along for a number of miles to a canyon known as 
"Hell's Gate." Below Messiter, Salmon Creek runs in from a valley 
the scene of a recent mining rush. From Blue River to Still- 
water Flats the only arable land of any value is covered by timber 
lim-'r i. It consists of 200 acres on the west side of the river. 

At Blur River, B.( 




MIn fiiini 


Stillwait'r Flats 

l( would upprar thul these are so named he- 
cause the water doe:« not How more ahuut 
live miles an hour. The valley here averages 
about half a mile in width and the (lals are ahout fourteen miles 
long. Considerable land has l>een pl.nfd under lullivalion and 
taken up by settlers. One advanlaKe possessed b\ this settlement 
is a good wagon road, which runs from the south end of the Mats 
through Kamloops. 

down to V'avenby there is little 

J'rom Stillwater Flats 
cultural land. 


In the early seventies the (iovernment 
1251 Wirt' Cache Alt. 18% projected a telegraph line through here 

which was never constructed. Over 
twenty tons of wire were brought in on pack horses, and deposited 
in tt building called the 'Wire Cache " liven the foundations of 
the building have rotted away, but .several tons of rusty wire still 
mark the spot. 

1 he line now swings to the 
1269 3 Clearwater Crossing Alt. west and Clearwater River 

joins the Thompson. There 
is acme good fishing in this stream, l^olly V'arden and Rainbow 
Trout. When the salmon are running they can be seen coming 
from the Thompson up this stream, followed by rainbow trout. 

As the line runs south, more agricultural country is seen, and 
some very picturesque, well tilled, farms: on some of these, where 
irrigation is being used, wonderful growth is obtained, particularly 
in vegetables. 

f^uring contsruction. this was an impor- 
1292 Chll Chua Alt. 1277 tant centre, as the work going on was of 

a very heavy character. Unlike most 
of such towns, it is not only holding its population, but is growing 
as the centre of a healthy settlement. Important coal propertiesare 
being developed in the vicinity. There is a hotel and some good stores. 

This is also in the midst of a good 
1299 Chinook (;ove Alt. 1238 farming country, where there are 

extensive flats in the valley well 
suited to farming and stock raising. There is also good land on the 
benches above these flats and grazing land on the hills. There is 
some good timber, chiefly fir. The climate is mild and good crops 
are being raised without any irrigation, but on the higher benches 
some of the land would be very much benefited by it. 

From Louis Creek to Kamloops, general agriculture and fruit 
culture is conducted on a large scale, and some of the finest fruits 
and vegetables in British Columbia are being raised where the land 
is irrigated. 

More settlers are coming to this dis- 
1309 Louis Creek Alt. 1229 trict every season, and farming is 

being carried on most successfully. 
The best land appears to be on the north side of the creek. In the 
upper part of the valley there is a flat that runs for some miles 
which is well adapted to farming, and the neighbouring hillsides 
afford excellent grazing for stock. This part of the country appears 
to be in a very prosperous condition. Good crops o' vegetables 



NOTii.s Hv rm: way 

MU Iroiti 

1341 U 

are being raised, and a number of mnull apple nrdiard* liave been 
planted and are duinR well. Confiiderablc cleiirinK will liuvc to \c 
done on the undeveloped land before it run be u!ied for UKrirulturdl 
purpoRCH. but judging from what tan lie iieen of the (|uaiity of thin 
land it will be verv productive. There is some gfK>d timber in the 
vicinity of Louis Creek, including fir. yellow pine, cottonwood. 
and a little birch. 'I'hiit creek im said to conlam gold in paying 
quantities and placer mining operations are being carried on at 
the lower end. The Kamloops wagon road runs through the 
country, giving settlers access to points along the north Thompson. 

At Kamloops Junction, the 
KamlcHips Junction Alt. 1150 Canadian National Railway. 

has established a terminals 
with a spur into the city. The line here crosses the North Thomp- 
son on a fine steel structure and follows the north side of the main 
Thompson River, 

This is the principal town in the valley, 
and has a (>opulaiion of 5.500, it owns 
its own electric light and water system, 
place Kamloops Post was opened in 
1813 by the Northwest ("ompai-<v (not by the Hudson's liay Cr -n- 
pany. as often asserted). This WiS the year in which communica 
tion was established between the Columbia „nd the Irascr The 
first report of gold in British Columbia came from Kamloops. 
According to a report, gold dust had been seen in the possession of 
Indians as early as 1852, but no suspicion was awakened at the 
time of the wealth of the district; the hrst intimation of this was 
in 1853, when a servant of the company, idly washing^a pannikin 

1344 Kamloops Alt. 

and is a progressive 

Kamloops, B.C. 




MU Irdfii 

1 )49 

Traiii|uilli' Alt 

IIHO "1 


Coppor Cri-ok 


1 »66 


1171 (J 



1084 I) 

1 J77 



1 )H9 



I 199 


of gravel. foun<i sotiic nui<({«-l«( of giM I, iter iin tlip fanic of the 
Ihompoon and I ruscr sprracj from I'ljKfl >-oiin<J to San i ranrJHco, 
and in \cna tfian a year JO (t(l(» tiiincrs ru-ilu'd into the (li.-.ln< t and 
■taicrd claim» in all dim tions I rom tin- Kolden Mn<lM of tlifMC 
rivers millionii of dollam of th» prn ioua mrtal wan wanhr-d annually 
for rnany nucreedmK yearji A hraiuli line is now under < onNtriii lion 
to Kcllovfana vvhuli will develop an important fruit di.itrKt 

I he Thomp-Mon valley at Kamloops is very heaiiliful and the 
climate healthy and invixoratinK I ruit ufowinK l>y irriRation is 
carried on most surcrssfuily, and many cattle and hor'ies are rained 
in the district. 

Melow Kamloop.i is an enlartjcmenl 
of the I hoiiipNon l^iver known as 
Kamloops Lake, a beautiful l>ody of 
water, which the line follows on its 
northern bank for about twenty miles 
The lake ends at Savonu. and the 
99 i line enters the ru^Ked scenery of the 
I hoinpson .series of canyons. At 
Walhachin the lir.e cross-s to the so-ith side of the river. Here are 
some fine fruit orchards which can be seen from the train, water 
for their irrigation beinff flumetl from Deatlmans River. The 
glacially steepened walls ol this stream may be seen extendini; more 
than ten miles northwards At Anglesey the line passes back to the 
north side of the river. 

Ashcroft, where the line crosses the stream in and out of the 
town, is the distributing centre for the Cariboo and Oriiineca mines, 
amongst the most famous of gold fields, with a romantic history. 
These have been worked <m and olf since the early sixtie.s. when 
as high as six hundred dollars a pan was recorded f'ack horses 
and trains of freight wagons drawn by long strings of mules can 
be seen leaving for the mining districts almost every day. A.shcrofi 
ij a rancher's country, and large numbers of horses and cattle are 
raised. Three miles below the town the line enters the gloomy 
winding constriction in the mountain known as the Black Canyon, 
where the stream has cut through the shale and sandstone for a 
depth of over two hundred feet to its present bed. 

Between Basque and Minnabtarrie 
Ha.sqiie Alt. 921 gypsum and china clay may be seen 

Minnaharriet " 831 in crumbling outcrops of red. yellow 

and while. A wonderful combination 
of colour, in contrast with the foliage of the trees above and the 
reflected light in the swirling water below. 

.Spence's Bridge is picturesquely 
Spence's HridUo Alt. 738 situated in the valley at the 

base of Arthur's Seat Mountain, 
which rises abruptly to an altitude of 3.800 feet. At the base of 
the mountain may be seen silt escarpments from which a huge 
slide occurred on August Hth. 1903. damming the Thompson 
River and causing the destruction of an Indian village on the far 
bank. Five Indians were buried alive in the slide, ten were killed 
and thirteen injured by the wave which swept up the river. The 
old wagon road to the Cariboo gold fields runs from the town. 

Vii^V il 

NO lis in I HI. WAY 

Mt. tn.iM 

14 W 


Skoitnkii All 





14)2 1) 





wliuli i» »tic .Imtribulinn centre for tt greul mining und ranihing 
lountry l>tuk in the lulls. Tlie t<iuntrv ri)ur<l lirre ix known «» 
the Dry Hell und the and hilli'idr!! arc covered with u |{reyi»h 
green nage lirusih; yet with irriRtition rnoul reitxirkitlile crops of 
all kindu are r.imecl in the district I'o the south in the Nicola valley, 
one of the inont fertile in the province, through which a line of the 
Canadian National is pro)ected to Kelowna Relow .Spence's Dridge 
the scenery is very striking as the valley 
through .Sk<M>nka la followed. 
A few miles lieUiw .^pence's Hridge thenar 
rowing valley swinw southward, und con 
tmues tins course until near (josset. where 
west. At (iosset. arc the (jladwin Ululfs. 

weird and 
peculiar apjiearancc. The Nicomcn River comes in from the south, 
tumbling over a waterfall as it enters the Thompson. A small 
mining camp can be seen here where gold was first discovered in 
Dritish Columbia in IH57. Near the mouth of Hotanie Creek is 
an odd gigantic ridge called "The Cra g." about which the Indians 
hold strange traditions. 

The line here enters the Thompson Canyon, running along the 
side of the mountain, whose rugged rocks right in on the foam- 
ing, struggling water, anudst a scene of magnihcent tumult, 

f-'rom l.ytton to Vancouver, a distance of 
l.yttoll Alt. i66.() I iH miles, the line follows the valley of the 

Iraser River. This stream, discovered and 

It bends gently 

cliffs of the most brilliant colour, rust red and 

yellows and weathered rock, which give them a 


Thonipsuri KivtT, H,( , 




MIn from 




explciml by Siriioi' Trancr in IKOH, in llic larRt**! river in Mritiiili 
( iilunilim. wliDsp ..••in lies entirely within tlie iMiiindiTifN of the 
province It ha* .i lenath <•( 7'H) miU-n, .inti <lr.iin« an are ; «J 91,700 
ii(|uure mileit KisinK near the ^ elli>whrii(l i'>ii«<i. it tlowa weHtward 
lo liev""'! I ete Jaune Cache, thence northwartl in the ijreat fitruc 
tural valley known an the Rocky Mountain i rem h. until it reachen 
latitude 54 dcKrees IS minutes, where it bendx and runn directl\ 

I he railway hridges the Ihornpson at l.ytton. where the canyon 
suddenly widen* and admit)) the turhid torrent of the l-raxer 
From l.ytton Mountain, which rises about 6. (MM) feet above the 
town, the C'a.scade Mountain!) in NXr'i'ihniKton mav be seen. an<l 
other rugged Alpine RummitR in the coast range, xupporting glaciem 
and ice neld^. 

Spanning tlie canvon of the unite*! rivers, the 
(^isco Alt. 602 railway follows the north side as as Cisco, 
where it recrosHcn <in a lofty steel structure, 
from which a splendid view ih obtained ot the surging stream below. 
From here to Port Mann the line continues on the south side of the 
river, penetrating the headlands with tunnels and spanning the 
ravines by bridges liclow Cisco a (xirtion of the old (jovernnient road 

which follows along the fraser and 
60 J Thompson valleys, built during the 
mining rush of the sixties, can be seen 
in some cases a thousand feet above the river. 
Irom l.ytton to the delta below Hope 
565 the river is clo.sely hemniwl in l)y the 
517 mountains of the Cascade Range on 
the cast and the Coast Range on the 
west. These two mountain systems overlap each other for about 
a hundred miles, and the Iraser forces itself between the two until 
It emerges at the head of the delta to pass around the southern 
end of the Coast Range. I his is properly the canyon, though it 
has become customary, when speaking of the I ruser Canyon, to 
refer to the Cjreat (jorge, which commences below F)oston Bar and 
ends at Vale. The latter, however, is matchless in its rugged gran- 
deur, where the river, forced l^ack upon itself by huge rocky projec 
tions, swirls from one side of the chasm to the other, and. split 
by huge boulders and jagged masses of displaced rock in the channels, 
the mighty torrent roars in tempestuous fury. Hell's Ciate, the IMack 

Canyon, where there is a tunnel 1 . 520 
feet long, and Chapman Bar arc pas- 
sed, and we near the village of Vale 
fort Vale was founded by the 
Hudson's Bay Company in 1848. and 
This became the muin route to the 
interior, which started from l.angley to F'ort Hope by water, thence 
by trail across the defile of the Coquihalla River to the Thompson. 
After a time V ale, being at the head of navigation, became an out- 
fitting point for miners and ranchmen. 1 he town, as it stands to day . 
occupies a bench on the riverside, surrounded by mountains. It 
is one of the most pictures(|ue spots in the [ raser valley. The line 
here through a tunnel 2.015 feet in length. 

I' alls Crick Alt 

clinging to the clilfs. 

Inkiisaph Alt. 

Boston Bar Alt. 
(Chapman Bar 


Fort Hofje a short lime later. 



^^■L M 


Page 34 

MU. frtini 




.,.,,, ., ., ^^^ railway passes through the villaee 

Inifalttar Alt. 60 of Hope, the site of Fort Hope of the 
""''^' '^-^ Hud.sonsfiay Company. It is still a trad- 

. , , '"^ P°*' ""'^ miniiK? town. From it 

there are a number of trails over the mountains to the interior 
Ihere is a hne motor road from Hope to Silver Lake which is K- 
coming a very popular resort, and where excellent fishing .u, U 
had, Uolly \arden and Rainbow Trout bein? numerous, amey 
and of t;.,<,d size. Coc4uihalla lake is also a very at(racti^ ' -^h.-r-i 
ot water that affords very good lishing. At Hope Peaks t, -re .h a 
large body of silver ore. Work has commenced upon its devel, ■• ..-, t 
and there IS considerable activity in the mining region as a result 
Alter leaving Hope, the canyon widens, and we come into a country 
ot broad leve valley.s w,lh iici. soil and heavy timber, with finely 
cultivated .elds, and the vegetation increases in luxuriousness as 
we approach the f^acific. 

Floods Al,. 117 This is the richest part of the valley 

St. Klmo 



Oh earn 




Sum as 


Mt. l.ef>aiioii 

(;ien \alky 


Port Kills 

Hi) ot the lower Iraser, where ideal con- 
'^''*'""*' F^revail for fruit growing and 

7u n "^"'''*^' gardening. The advent of the 

/H railway has made a wonderful difTer- 

'0 n j"*^*^ '" ''"^ agrit-uiiural activities of the 

A I! '^'''''■"''- ''>' providing a ready means 

^i of marketing its products. Much of 

HO the land is particularly well suited 

^2 to dairying and mixed farming, and 

29 there is no doubt that ihc country 

22 will become a heavy producer, judging 

22 by the rapid development that is pro- 

24 ceeding. 

F-"ras('r Canon, i^ C 



Mis from 


Page 35 


P«r. Mann Alt MO There are lar«e areas of fir,,t-class 

e province, I ort Mann is almos- opposite New Westminster 

railwa.v . Salmon canning is one of its main industries 

16 l^"P"'""°"- '•♦"■OOO Canada's mam 
16 U Pacific Ocean port, named after the 


roads and b? die oath ut '^'"''^ 'T'' ^".^ ^P'^"^''^ "^"'"^ 

1598.0 \anroiivor Alt. 

. .0fS 

( uiiadjan NatJoniil Railwav. 

new lerininal Ocpol. Vanrouvrr, B( 

Page 36 


MU. from 

Jrom the port, ocean shipping arrives and dtr>art« for the 
Orient. Australia, Alaska, the Pacific Coast of the nited States, 
and Northern British Columbia. Stanley Park, reserved by the 
British Government for purposes of fortification, and now the pro- 
perty of the Dominion ot Canada, is a piece of virgin forest, with 
magnificent "great trees" of Douglas fir and cedar, and is one of 
the sights of Canada. There are splendid opportunities for sport 
in the immediate vicinity of Vancouver. Mountain goat, bear and 
deer are to be had in the hills along the inlet, ancj splendid trout 
fishing in a number of streams at no great distance. A number of 
sportsmen are attracted to the city every year on this account. 
Capilano Canyon, a few miles across the narrows, is one of the most 
interesting and beautiful spots on the coast. 

Victoria Alt 36 '® '^* capital of British Columbia, and is 
' the chief city on Vancouver Island. The 

Parliament Building, overlooking James Bay. is one of the finest 
examples ot architecture in America. It contains fine collections of 
natural history, mineral, agricultural and horticultural specimens, 
and is a centre of great interest to visitors. It is the second sea- 
port of the Dominion, and wa.s the headquarters of the Canadian 
fur-.sealing fleet. The population numbers about 33.000. and the 
city strongly resembles places in the Old World, beautiful gardens 
surrounding most of the homes. Three miles from Victoria is the 
excellent harbour of Escjuimalt. defended b\ modern fortifications 
and possessing a fine dry dock. 

Provincial Parliament Buildings. Victoria. B.C. 


f'asc 57 


Quebec to Winnipeg 

Montreal to Winnipeg 

Quebec and Maritime Provinces 

Quebec. New Ontario and E-Lastern Manitoba 















Page 38 

notj:,s by thl wa^- 

C. A HAVMS. Vice President, Toronto. 

H. H. Melanson. 

Puss. Traf M-„, 


R. I" TvlacLeod. 

Ass't. to Puss. Traf. Mijr.. 

F^. I.. Fairbairn. 

Cien Pass. Agent. 

.S. Osborne Scott. 

Gen. Pass. Agent. 




1'. W. Robertson, 

C.^n. Pass. Agent. 


R Creelman. 

A.sst. Pass. Traf. Mgr., 


P. Mooney. 

Asst. Gen. Pass. Agent. 


Jas. Morrison. 

Ass't. Gen. Pass. Agent. 


H. C. Bourlier. 

Ass't Gen. Pass. Agent. 


A. Brostedt. 

Ass't. Gen. Pass. Agent. 


Boston. Mass., 294 Washington St. New York. N.Y, 

C K. Howard, Gen, Agent. 

Chicago, III.. 64 West Adams St. 
R. E. Clark. General Agent. 

Detroit. Mich.. 327 Majestic BIdg. 
F. A. Shaw. General Agent. 

Duluth. Minn., 

424 West Superior St. 

C. A. Skogg Div. Frt. and 
District Passenger .Agent. 

Minneapolis, Minn. 
51 I Nicolet Ave,, 

C. J, Piper. Commercial Agent. 

Suite 310 Woolworth BIdg.. 
F. A. Voung. General Agent. 

Pittsburg. Pa.. 214 Park BIdg. 
F. G. Wood. General Agent. 

St. Louis. Mo. 31 I F^ierce BIdg. 
L. E. Ayer, General Agent. 

.San Francisco. Cal.. 

316 .Santa Marina BIdg. 

W, F. Barry, Commercial Agt. 

St. Paul, Minn,. 

Cor, 4th & Jackson Sts. 

A, H. Davis. General Agent, 

London. S.W., Eng., 21 Charing Cross. 

W. J. Cartmel. Act'g. European Traffic Mgr. 


f'age i') 

nnii/sTs TO (),{ riiiun (,ii < .i\,u) i 
Av> iu:sTiii( Tioxs on r.tssroins 

To„n.ts ,u„l franl/rr.s- hrt.rm th, fuifn/ Sfafr. ,nni 
( ,n,u,l„ .In nnl nynirr ,,asspnrfs. Thr in/rrr/nun,r nf 
froj'r ,.v ;,orrrnn/ h,, ,!„■ .,nnr I nn„;,,ra,lnu lans nf 
'">(/■ runnn,. ,rlnr/, /,„rr l.rrn n, fnrrr f„r ,„a.n, 
!ic<^rs ,u,sl. ,u,.l ,lnr pruri.i,,,, l,„. I„rn „„„lr ,n ,). 
nhtair thr n,fn, .-i,!,,,,,, reslrirtinns „f ,n„ .,./ 
^^/.v///r.s-,v tnnvl in or tlimu,,!, Can.uui. 

V . 
k « I 

I'Kl.NTKl) IN